Located between 55°26 and 40°56′ north latitude and 45°26′ and 87°18′ east longitude. According to allcitycodes, the territory of Kazakhstan extends from the lower reaches of the Yedil in the west to Altai in the east for 3000 km and from the West Siberian Plain in the north to the Tien Shan in the south for 1700 km. In the west and north it borders on the Russian Federation (common border – 6467 km), in the south with the Turkmen Republic (380 km), the Republic of Uzbekistan (2300 km), the Kyrgyz Republic (980 km) and in the east with the People’s Republic of China (1480 km).
The total length of the borders is 12,187 km, including water borders passing through the Caspian Sea (600 km). Four climatic zones that define the characteristic landscape of the country cover the territory of Kazakhstan: forest-steppe, steppe, semi-desert and desert. The first includes the plain regions of the far north of the republic that are most provided with moisture.
The steppe zone occupies a vast territory in the north of the republic, spreading south of the first. Semi-deserts are a zone of dry steppes in the central part of Kazakhstan, and the desert zone occupies most of the flat belt of the state.
The relief of Kazakhstan is extremely diverse: high mountains covered with glaciers, hilly middle mountains, plateau-like uplands, vast plains and lowlands. The deepest depression – Karakiya (South-Western Kazakhstan) – lies at a level of 132 m below sea level. The largest mountain ranges of the republic: Khan-Teniri peak (Syryzhaz ridge) – 6995 m, peak 100 years of the VGO (Meridial ridge) – 6276 m, Talgar peak (Ili Alatau) – 4973 m, Mount Ishanbulak (Kungei Alatau) – 4647 m, Mount Besbaskan (Zhetysuysky Alatau) – 4622 m, Mount Metallurg (Ilisky Alatau) – 4600 m, Muzshau peak (Altai mountains, Katyn ridge) – 4506 m, Manas peak (Talas ridge) – 4482 m, Mount Ashufor (Teriskey Alatau) – 4370 m, Mount Muzshau (Zhetysuysky Alatau) – 4370 m, Komsomol Peak (Ilisky Alatau) – 4330 m.
The water resources of Kazakhstan are represented by rivers and temporary streams (more than 85 thousand), lakes (more than 48 thousand), glaciers and groundwater. There are 4 longest rivers in the country: Ertys (4248 km total length and 1700 km on the territory of the republic); Esil (2450 and 1400 km); Oral (2428 and 1082 km) and Syr Darya (2219 and 1400 km respectively). The most extensive seas and lakes of Kazakhstan are the Caspian Sea (374 thousand km2), the Aral Sea (46.64 thousand km2) and Balkhash (18.2 thousand km2). except for the soils of the tundra, taiga and humid subtropics.
Features of the geographical position of Kazakhstan directly affect the diversity of flora and fauna species characteristic of various regions and regions of the country. So, for the north of Kazakhstan, species similar to those common in Siberia are typical, and for the south – for subtropics and tropics. The modern flora includes about 6000 plant species, excluding 500 introduced, cultivated and accidentally introduced species. In the fauna of Kazakhstan, there are 172 species of mammals, 490 species of birds, 51 species of reptiles, 12 species of amphibians, St. 100 kinds of fish. The world of
invertebrates (insects, crustaceans, mollusks, worms) is extremely rich – more than 40 thousand species.
The climatic range of the country is formed under the influence of a considerable distance from the oceans (and primarily the Atlantic – the main carrier of moisture), as well as radiation and circulation conditions. The northernmost point of Kazakhstan (55°26′ north latitude) is located at the latitude of Moscow and Kazan, and the southernmost point is that of Madrid, Istanbul and Baku. Therefore, when trees bloom in the south of the republic, in its north the snow is just beginning to melt. The average January temperature rises from -18°C in the north and east of the country to -3°C in the southernmost part, and the same indicator in July from +19°C in the north to +28-30°C in the south.
In terms of reserves and diversity of minerals, Kazakhstan is one of the richest regions in the world. The explored reserves of lead, zinc, bismuth determine its 1st place among the CIS member states, and the reserves of copper, molybdenum, bauxite, oil, phosphates and cadmium 2nd. The country produces (in the total production of the CIS): 40% uranium, 97% chromium, 70% lead, 50% zinc, significant extraction of other raw materials, pure precious metals, including gold.