According to the constitution adopted by referendum on December 12, 1993 (in force since December 25, 1993; changes thereafter) Russia is a federal republic with a presidential system. Human and civil rights are formally guaranteed.
Head of State, Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and Chairman of the Security Council is the President of the Republic, who has extensive powers (directly elected for 6 years). In the first ballot, an absolute majority of the votes cast is required, the second ballot serves as a runoff. The president determines the guidelines of politics, can chair cabinet meetings at any time, has a well-staffed presidential administration, directs foreign and security policy and confirms military doctrine. He is responsible for relevant emergency powers. He can influence legislation through the right of initiative and veto. A two-thirds majority in both houses of parliament is required to reject his veto. The head of state has an unlimited right to issue ordinances for all areas that are not already regulated by law. In practice, most of the legislation is carried out through presidential decrees (ukas). The President can only be removed from office by the Federation Council if a State Duma charge of treason or other serious crimes is upheld by the Supreme Court. The President appoints the Prime Minister with the consent of the State Duma (since 2020 when a State Duma charge of treason or other serious crimes is upheld by the Supreme Court. The President appoints the Prime Minister with the consent of the State Duma (since 2020 Mikhail Mishustin ) and, at his suggestion, the members of the cabinet. The State Duma can express its mistrust in the government with an absolute majority, but only if this happens repeatedly within three months does the President have to decide whether to dismiss the government or dissolve the State Duma. President of the Republic is W. Putin (incumbent 2000-2008 and since 2012).
The legislative body is the Federal Assembly (Federalnoje Sobranije), which consists of two houses (State Duma and Federation Council). The State Duma (Gossudarstvennaya Duma; legislative period 5 years) consists of 450 members. Half of these are elected according to the relative majority election in individual constituencies and half by proportional representation via party lists. There is a 5% blocking clause. In the Federation Council (Soviet Federazii) every federal subject is represented by 2 representatives. There are also 17 members appointed by the President. In the legislative process, the State Duma has the upper hand. Simple laws are passed by the State Duma with an absolute majority and are passed if the Federation Council approves it with an absolute majority or does not deal with the bill within 14 days; There is only an obligation to refer to financial, contractual and border laws. If the Federation Council rejects the proposal, a conciliation procedure is initiated, after which the State Duma can still pass the law with a two-thirds majority. Certain matters must be regulated by the constitutional law, which requires a two-thirds majority in the State Duma and a three-quarters majority in the Federation Council. The constitution itself can only be changed in a very laborious process. The Council of State formed by Presidential Decree 2000 (governors of the subjects of the federation under the chairmanship of the President) has only advisory and no decision-making powers and is intended to strengthen relations between central power and republics and regions.
According to the constitution, all federal subjects have equal rights, but the quality of the state and the consequences thereof (own constitution, nationality, state language) is only awarded to the republics. – With the help of the federal circles, newly created in 2000, which are superordinate to the subjects of the federation and at the head of which are appointed by the President and politically responsible area plenipotentiaries (governors-general), the unity of the federation is to be guaranteed and the enforcement of the laws passed for the federation in the Regions are controlled.
In the constitution and the Constitutional Court Act of July 21, 1994 based on it, the legal status of the constitutional court established in 1991 has been reorganized. The now 19 judges are elected by the Federation Council for 12 years on the proposal of the President (re-election not permitted). The competences of the constitutional court extend above all to abstract and concrete norm controls, federal and organ disputes as well as individual complaints.
The domestic political situation is determined by the strong position of President Putin and his United Russia party. Restrictions on freedom of expression, freedom of the press and freedom of assembly, increasing pressure on critics of the regime and state controls on the Internet are suppressing the establishment of a political opposition. Russia’s best-known government critic Alexei Navalny (* 1976) has repeatedly served several days’ imprisonment for calling for unauthorized demonstrations.
In foreign policy, the illegal annexation of the Ukrainian peninsula of Crimea has put a heavy strain on Russia’s relations with the European Union, the USA and Canada. As a result, economic and financial sanctions were imposed on Russia as well as entry and property bans on individual Russians. In the US, Russia is suspected of having influenced the US presidential election campaign. In the Syrian civil war, Russia supports the position of President B. al-Assad .
As a country starting with letter R according to countryaah, Russia is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and the OSCE. Together with Brazil, India, China and South Africa, Russia is part of the trade association of the BRICS countries.